Usein kysytään mitä Pax Romana tarkoittaa. Pax Romana on latinaa ja tarkoittaa roomalaista rauhaa. Se viittaa noin kaksisataa vuotta kestäneeseen rauhan aikaan Rooman historiassa.
Rauha alkoi kun keisari Augustus nousi valtaan Roomassa vuonna 27 eaa. Sisällissodat olivat koetelleet Roomaa, mutta Augustuksen aikana olot vakiintuivat ja seurasi ennennäkemättömän pitkä rauhan aika. Augustus pienensi Rooman legioonia ja siirsi niitä Italiasta provinsseihin, jossa ne vartioivat Rooman rajojen rauhaa ja kukistivat kapina aikeet. Historioitsijat katsovat Pax Romanan päättyneen Marcus Aureliuksen kuolemaan eli vuoteen 180 jaa. Marcus Aureliuksen kuoleman jälkeen valta siirtyi hänen pojalleen Commodukselle.
Commodus oli tyranni ja itsevaltias. Hän hallitsi Rooman Valtakuntaa pelon avulla. Commodus murhattiin vuonna 192 jaa. Sen jälkeen Roomassa käynnistyi pitkä ja verinen valtakamppailu, ja Rooman Valtakunnan alamäen katsotaan alkaneen tuosta ajanjaksosta.
Roman, AD 64-66 ,Minted in Lugdunum (modern Lyon, France).
Pax Romana, the Roman Peace.
The emperor Nero is mostly remembered as the tyrannical emperor who played on his lyre while Rome burned around him. He saw himself as a great artist, musician, and military victor. To celebrate the universal peace of his reign, he ordered the gates of the Temple of Janus in the Forum in Rome to be closed. This only happened when the Roman armies were not at war anywhere in the empire.
The back of this coin celebrates this event. The building shown is the Temple of Janus with doors closed. The legend around the edge reads: ‘He has closed Janus, because peace has been won for the People of Rome on land and sea.’ For the warlike Romans, peace was won through conquest, not concord. Universal peace meant that the Romans were everywhere victorious, not that they had made peace with their enemies.
Janus was a god with two faces who looked in two directions. The first month of the Roman year, January, was named after him as it too looked in two directions – back to the old year and forward to the new.
The map above may be unclear. However, basically, the whole territory includes the whole Mediterranean sea, from Mesopotamia to Britania at that time, covering a space of 6.5million km2 The largest territory was reached during the Pax Romana period under the leadership of the famous Augustus Caeser, ruled from 27BC to 14AC. After the Pax Romana period, the empire broke down and started to lose the territory to both threats from within and without. Finally, the empire was broken in Western and Eastern Empire and slowly led to the diminish of the entire Roman Empire out of the world map.
Marcus Aurelius (c. A.D. 121 – 180) was a Roman Emperor (the last of the “Five Good Emperors”) and philosopher of the Roman period. He is considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.
Although, perhaps not a first-rank or original philosopher, his “Meditations” remain revered as a literary monument and as a succinct statement of Stoic philosophy. Looked at as a series of practical philosophical exercises intended to digest and put into practice philosophical theory, his works have had a profound influence over the centuries.
Marcus Aurelius was born on 26 April A.D. 121 in Rome (originally named Marcus Annius Catilius Severus at birth). His father was Marcus Annius Verus (of Spanish origin, served as a praetor and died when Marcus was just three years old); his mother was Domitia Lucilla (from a wealthy family of consular rank). He had no brothers and just one sister, Annia Cornificia Faustina, who was about two years younger than he. After his father’s death, Marcus Aurelius was adopted and raised by his mother and paternal grandfather Marcus Annius Verus.
He had several family connections to various Roman emperors, mainly on his father’s side, and he had already attracted the attention of the ruling Emperor Hadrian as a young boy. He was made a member of the equestrian order when he was six. When Hadrian’s first adopted son died young, he adopted Anoninus Pius as his son and successor, on the precondition that Antoninus would in turn adopt both Marcus Aurelius (then called Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus) and his own grandson Lucius Aurelius Verus, and arrange for them to be next in line. Thus, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Aurelius Verus were adopted by Anoninus Pius when he became Emperor in A.D. 138 and designated as his joint successors. Continue reading Marcus Aurelius